This is a side view of the perspective diagram above.
It is one of the most common ways of connecting the ledger with the band board. In this instance, minimum 1/2" lags are staggered along the length of the board. The lags should pass through by at least 1/2" on the back side of the band board.
Note: The deck boards have been depicted with a gap between the first board and the house only to emphasize flashing overlapping the ledger. In the field the first board would be positioned within 1/2" from the wall flashing.
In this second method, 1/2" through bolts are used to anchor the band board and ledger together.
This configuration requires access from the basement between the floor joists in order to install the washers and nuts.
Band boards must be solid sawn 2x (1-1/2") dimensional lumber or minimum 1" engineered wood product (EWP).
Pre-drill holes 17/32" to 9/16" diameter.
This is slightly larger than the bolt itself and relieves and pressure or tension in the boards. The predominant forces in the system will be the tensile compression from the bolts and the bearing weight of the deck.
The third connection method uses a maximum 1/2" space between the exterior sheathing and the ledger.
In this diagram the space is created using a 1/2" stack of washers. Just be sure to verify this stacking method is permitted in your area.
Double layers of metal flashing create a dry air space between the house and the board with plenty of air to circulate further protecting the materials and ensuring maximum longevity. Consider this if live in wet climate zone.
The fourth technique involves securing the ledger to a concrete foundation wall rather than first floor band board. One of the benefits of this method is that more rigid minimum and maximum lag screw location configurations associated with mounting to band joists can be avoided.
Then the deck can be set as much as 7-3/4" below the top of the door sill.
This is very desirable in areas with snow fall in the winter or wet climates as it provides an additional level of protection from water entering the home.
Either expansion bolts or epoxy can be used in this scenario.
For a really durable job, consider applying 30# felt paper or metal flashing between the ledger and the concrete.
If metal flashing is used, hole must be drilled through the metal prior to drilling out the concrete. More work but an absolutely bullet proof solution.
The fifth ledger board technique involves mounting to a cinder block foundation.
Cinder blocks are not as common in residential construction today as there were years ago. And because they are hollow connecting a deck to them requires special attention.
The hollow core inside the blocks must be filled with concrete so that bolts and epoxy have material to be set into. Be sure also to caulk between the first board and the cinder wall.